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HORMONES

Hormones

Hormones can be classified according to their chemical nature, mechanism of action, nature of the action, their effects, and stimulation of Endocrine glands.

Chemical nature of hormones

This category of hormones is divided into six classes, they are hormones steroid; amines; peptide; protein; glycoprotein and eicosanoid. They are further described in Table 1.1. Steroid hormones are classified according to the organs that synthesize them therefore these hormones are classified as reproductive hormones, adrenal cortex hormones, and placenta hormones.

Table 1.1 Classification by chemical nature of hormones

Hormones

Source

Example

Steroid hormones

Derived from cholesterol which belong to a chemical compounds known as steroids

Reproductive hormones, adrenal cortex hormones

Amine hormones

Hormones derived from the modification of amino acids are referred to as amine hormones. Typically, the original structure of the amino acid is modified such that a COOH, or carboxyl, group is removed, whereas the NH3 +, or amine group remains. Amine hormones are synthesized from the amino acids tryptophan or tyrosine.

An example of a hormone derived from tryptophan is melatonin, while tyrosine derivatives include thyroid hormones and catecholamines

Peptide hormones

These hormones are made up of only few amino acid residues and they are usually present themselves in form of a linear chains

Oxytocin and vasopressin

Protein hormones

These hormones are build up from large number of amino acid residues

Insulin, glucagon, somatotropins

Glycoprotein hormones

These are conjugated protein bound to carbohydrate which include galactose, mannose, fructose

luteinizing hormones follicle stimulating hormones, thyroid stimulating hormones

Eicosanoid hormones

Made up of small fatty acid derivatives with a variety of arachidonic acid

There are three major types of hormones.

1) Protein hormones (or polypeptide hormones) are made of chains of amino acids. An example is ADH (antidiuretic hormone) which decreases blood pressure.

2) Steroid hormones are derived from lipids. Reproductive hormones like testosterone and estrogen are steroid hormones.

3) Amine hormones are derived from amino acids. Epinephrine, which helps regulate the fight-or-flight response, is an amine hormone.

Hormones are vital for maintaining normal health, growth, development and various other aspects of the body. Either excessive or deficient secretion of hormones can, therefore, cause diseases and disorders.

Low secretion of hormones due to an underactive endocrine gland can be treated using replacement therapy with synthetically prepared hormones. These are mostly given as pills and examples include thyroid hormone replacement and estrogen and progesterone pills. Some of the hormones are peptides and may be damaged by the gastric acids if taken as pills, in which case they need to be administered intravenously, as is the case with insulin.

 

HORMONAL REPLACEMENT MEDICATIONS

 

 

 

Thyroxin or levothyroxin pills are used to treat hypothyroidism or an underactive thyroid gland. Levothyroxin is also used to treat cretinism in infants.

Gonadotropin hormones that regulate the secretions of sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are used to treat several disease conditions, infertility and prostrate disorders.

Steroids may be given in the form of pills to treat several allergic, inflammatory or autoimmune conditions. They may be used in the inhaled form in bronchial asthma or as nasal sprays in allergic rhinitis. Steroid injections may also be given in cases of emergency such as acute asthma attack or shock. In addition, anabolic steroids can increase muscle growth and are administered to treat certain muscular and other developmental disorders.

Insulin hormone injections are used to treat individuals with type 1 diabetes or women with gestational diabetes who have failed to respond to other treatment approaches. Insulin is sometimes used by individuals with type 2 diabetes in cases where the disease has progressed to advanced stages.

The hormone glucagon may be administered in cases of severe diabetic hypoglycaemia in order to restore blood sugar levels.

Hormonal preparations are one of the major classes of drugs used in medicine. Many of the hormones are naturally secreted in microscopic amounts and the replacement hormones are therefore often designed to be released in amounts similar to those that would occur naturally in the body.

HORMONE INGREDIENTS SUPPLIED BY MARSING SA

 

Hormones
7 KETO DHEA ACETATE
7-KETO DHEA
DHEA
ESTRADIOL
ESTRADIOL CYPIONATE
ESTRIOL
HCG (100% NATURAL)
HCG (100% NATURAL)
MELATONIN 99%
NALTREXONE
PREGNENALONE
PROGESTERONE USP37
PYRIDOXAL-5-PHOSPHATE MONOHYDRATE
TESTOSTERONE (MICRONIZED) 100% = 30 Microns
TESTOSTERONE CYPIONATE
TESTOSTERONE UNDECANOATE